Automatic bottle blowing machine
preform and its heating, pre-blowing (position, pressure and flow), stretch rod, high pressure blowing (pressure, position) and mold, etc. These are the elements in the process that affect the bottle blowing machine to make bottles. 1. Preforms Preforms, also known as parisons, are injection-molded PET pellets. It requires that the proportion of recycled materials should not exceed 10%, and the number of recycling should not exceed two times. The preforms after injection molding or the preforms used after heating must be cooled for more than 48 hours, and the storage time of the preforms used should not exceed 6 months. The type of raw materials used in the preform, the proportion of secondary materials mixed in and the residual stress in the preform are different, and these factors have a serious impact on the molding process of the bottle, which should be considered in detail according to the actual situation. 2. The heating of the heating preform is completed by the heating furnace, which is manually set and automatically adjusted. The height of the heating furnace is preferably about 25mm, and the distance from the conveying wheel is about 19.6mm. The preform runs continuously through the entire oven on the conveying wheel, so that the preform is heated more evenly and can be formed better, which overcomes the defect of uneven heating due to static heating and manual rotation of the preform in the past. However, if the heating furnace is not adjusted properly, it will cause uneven distribution of the blown bottle wall thickness up and down (such as the upper light and the lower heavy), the bottle mouth becomes larger than the standard, the hard neck and other product defects, as well as the torsion failure of the mechanical parts. The temperature of each area can be adjusted in detail according to the molding state of the product, and at the same time, the opening state of the oven lamp must be considered. In addition, the setting of the output power of the oven also has a great influence on the heating of the preform, which controls the heat output of the whole oven. When the machine is not turned on for a long time, when it is turned on again, the initial output power should be set higher accordingly, and then gradually reduce to the normal state during the normal consumption process. The output power is generally about 80%. The effect is more pronounced. The bottle blowing production process also has a certain relationship with the production environment temperature, and the ambient temperature is generally at room temperature (about 22 °C). If the temperature is too high, the product is prone to agglomeration at the freezing point; if the temperature is too low, the product performance is unstable when the machine is started, and the detailed operation should be adjusted according to the actual situation and experience. 3. Pre-blowing The function of pre-blowing in the blowing process is to make the preform begin to take shape, and at the same time, it is stretched longitudinally by the stretching rod to increase its longitudinal strength. The whole process is that the pre-blowing cam pushes the three-way valve to the pre-blowing position during the blowing process, and is completed by the one-way valve. Pre-blow position, pressure and flow can all affect the quality of the bottle. Position: If the pre-blowing position is early, the center point of the bottom of the bottle will be skewed and thinned, the wall thickness of the foot is uneven and white, the top is heavy and the bottom is light, the neck is hard, and the bottom is penetrated and other defects; after the pre-blowing position is wrong, Defects such as upper light and lower weight, thickening of the center point, and depression will appear. Air flow The pre-blowing air flow is controlled by the one-way valve, and it is advisable to open 3-4 turns in general. The air flow is large, the bottom is heavy, the center point is thin and biased, the feet are white, and the wall thickness is uneven; Pressure: The pre-blowing pressure is preferably 0.8-1MPa. When the pressure is high, it may become heavy on the top and light on the bottom, the center point is skewed, the wall thickness of the foot is uneven, and white, etc.; when the pressure is low, it cannot be fully stretched, the bottom is heavy, and the center point is thick. The molding condition of the bottle foot and center point has the greatest impact on the quality of the bottle. Improper adjustment often causes fatal defects such as bursting of the bottle (under normal experimental conditions) and leakage. 4. Stretching rod Stretching rod is installed to stretch the heated preform under the cooperation of pre-blowing while pre-blowing, and it resets after high-pressure blowing and before exhausting. The stretching rod must be able to move up and down vertically and smoothly during the blowing process, the driving pressure is 0.55-0.8MPa, and the gap with the bottom mold is 2.3-2.5mm, that is, the thickness of the preform is 1/3-1/2. If the gap is too large, the center point of the bottom of the bottle will be offset; if the gap is too small, the center point will become thinner. 5. High-pressure blowing The function of high-pressure blowing is to fully stretch the melt and stick to the mold wall, so that the bottle can be fully formed, and at the same time, the horizontal stretching is stopped to improve its horizontal strength. The main influencing factors are location and pressure. The high-pressure blowing pressure is generally 3.7-4MPa, which is determined by its molding characteristics and the properties of the filled beverage (carbon dioxide). There are two positions, that is, the position of high-pressure gas and the position of exhaust. The time between the two is the pressure holding time in the molding process, and the length of this time has a great influence on the stability of the bottle capacity. Lack of high-pressure air can easily lead to improper bottle molding and lack of foot blowing. 6. Mould Mould is one of the important factors affecting the bottle blowing molding of the automatic bottle blowing machine. The bottle body is a half mold, and the bottom of the bottle is independent, which is a typical blow molding mold. In the production process, it is necessary to keep the mold constant temperature, clean, and the vent hole is unblocked. When the heating and cooling system of the mold is faulty, the bottleneck will be crooked, the bottle will be tilted, the volume and height will change, and the bottom will become heavier. Keeping the mold at a constant temperature can also prevent condensation on the surface of the mold. The shrinkage rate of PET after molding is relatively large, usually 1.8%, and it is slightly reduced after adding glass fiber reinforcement, but it still reaches 0.2%-1.0%. Under normal conditions, the high mold temperature shrinkage rate is large, and the low mold temperature shrinkage rate is small. In order to maintain the stability of the PET bottle volume, the mold temperature must be strictly controlled. Generally, the temperature of the bottle body is slightly higher, which is 20-45 °C, and the bottom request is lower, which is 6-15 °C. A high bottom temperature will make the bottom heavier and the center point thicker. There are also nozzles in actual production that will affect the molding of PET bottles.
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